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Study of Distance measurement using Ultrasonic Transducer.

OBJECT  :- Study of Distance measurement using Ultrasonic Transducer. 

APPARATUS REQUIRED :-Trainer kit with power supply cord, 2mm Patch Cords (8pieces) and Power Cord

THEORY: - Ultrasonic is defined as that band above 20 KHz. It continues up into the MHz range and finally, at around 1 GHz. Ultrasonic sensors (also known as transducers when they both send and receive) work on a principle similar to radar or sonar which evaluate attributes of a target by interpreting the echoes from radio or sound waves respectively. Ultrasonic sensors generate high frequency sound waves and evaluate the echo which is received back by the sensor. Sensors calculate the time interval between sending the signal and receiving the echo to determine the distance to an object. Ultrasonic sensors are active, visible, volumetric sensors.

 

 

Fig 5.1  :- Principle of a pulse-echo ultrasound system for distance measurements

Figure shows a simple pulse-echo system. The transmitter and the receiver could be the same device, but they are separated for clarity in this figure. The oscillator generates an electric signal with a typical frequency of 40 kHz. This electric signal is transformed into mechanical vibrations of the same frequency in the transmitter. These vibrations generate sound waves that are reflected by the object. The reflected sound echo causes an electric signal in the receiver. For precise measurements, the speed of sound is a crucial parameter.  For example, the speed of sound is proportional to the square root of absolute temperature. Measuring distances in an environment with large temperature gradients can result in erroneously calculated distances. As an advantage, ultrasound waves are robust against other disturbances such as light, smoke, and electromagnetic interference

RESULT: we study the distance measurement using ultrasonic transducer.

PRECAUTIONS:

  1. Use the trainer kit with care.
  2. To avoid fire or shock hazards, observe all ratings and marks on the instrument.
  3. Do not operate in wet / damp conditions.

QUESTIONS:-

  1. What is transducer?
  2. What is the principal of ultrasonic transducer?
  3. Write the applications of ultrasonic transducer?
  4. Write the range of ultrasonic transducer?

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