PROJECT REPORT ON NUTRACEUTICALS-'FOODS AS MEDICINE'
I am Ruchika vijoriya of M.Sc (HONS.) Microbiology 1st year 1st semester Lovely Professional University Phagwara feel highly indebted to the persons who cooperated with me during project work.
The various persons to whom I am thankful for their expert guidance for completion of my project. I am really thankful to DR. RAVINDER NAGPAL for his expert guidance.
I can not express my feelings in words for their love,affection and inspiration and blessings rendered by my parents.
Above all I am highly indebted to God without whose grace this little work could have never seen light of the day.
Nutraceutical, a portmanteau of nutrition and pharmaceutical, refers to extracts of foods claimed to have a medicinal effect on human health. The nutraceutical is usually contained in a medicinal format such as a capsule, tablet or powder in a prescribed dose.
More rigorously, nutraceutical implies that the extract or food is demonstrated to have a physiological benefit or provide protection against a chronic disease.
Functional foods are defined as being as part of a usual diet but are demonstrated to have physiological consumed benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions.
Examples of claims made for nutraceuticals are resveratrol from red grape products as an antioxidant, soluble dietary fiber products, such as psyllium seed husk for reducing hypercholesterolemia, broccoli (sulforaphane) as a cancer preventative, and soy or clover (isoflavonoids) to improve arterial health.
Nutraceuticals are often used in nutrient premixes or nutrient systems in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
Very few of these products, however, have sufficient scientific evidence proving health benefits to consumers. Consequently, few have FDA approval for making health claims on product labels.
When food is being cooked or prepared using "scientific intelligence" with or without knowledge of how or why it is being used, the food is called "functional food." Thus, functional food provides the body with the required amount of vitamins, fats, proteins, carbohydrates, etc, needed for its healthy survival. When functional food aids in the prevention and/or treatment of disease(s) and/or disorder(s) other than anemia, it is called a nutraceutical. (Since most of the functional foods act in some way or the other as antianemic, the exception to anemia is considered so as to have a clear distinction between the two terms, functional food and nutraceutical.) Thus, a functional food for one consumer can act as a nutraceutical for another consumer. Examples of nutraceuticals include fortified dairy products (eg, milk) and citrus fruits (eg, orange juice).
Nutraceuticals are naturally occurring/derived bioactive compounds that are reported to have health benefits. The delivery systems for nutraceuticals are foods (functional foods), supplements, or both. Drugs are designed to have medicinal properties for the prevention and treatment of identified diseases or signs and symptoms of disease. Counterfeit drugs contain either placebo, materials not identified in the labeling or substandard or impure materials, which may produce untoward pharmacological or toxicological effects. In addition, the consumer has the right to microbiological safety and prevention from adverse exposure to hazardous chemical(s), and other adverse compounds. Nutraceutical/drug delivery systems are viewed as approaches to (1) enhanced consumer health, (2) decreased healthcare costs, and (3) enhanced economic development. Therefore, the nutra/pharma/ceutical industry is reliant upon a strong underpinning of diversified research that addresses safety and assures chemical and biological efficacy. Significant safety through traceability can be assured by the coupling of the technologies of (a) global positioning (GPS); (b) bar/chip coding; and (c) hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) management, coupled to rapid nanotechnology marker assays now under development.