2dix-The Student Choice
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To study the specification and working of LCD TV.

OBJECT: - To study the specification and working of LCD TV.

APPARATUS:-LCD Driving IC,LCD Panel,Rectifier,Inverter,Backlight lamp,source driven IC,Gate driven IC.

THEORY:- A liquid crystal display or LCD draws its definition from its name itself. It is combination of two states of matter, the solid and the liquid. LCD uses a liquid crystal to produce a visible image. Liquid crystal displays are super-thin technology display screen that are generally used in laptop computer screen, TVs, cell phones and portable video games. LCD’s technologies allow displays to be much thinner when compared to cathode ray tube (CRT) technology. Liquid crystal display is composed of several layers which include two polarized panel filters and electrodes. LCD technology is used for displaying the image in notebook or some other electronic devices like mini computers. Light is projected from a lens on a layer of liquid crystal. This combination of coloured light with the gray scale image of the crystal (formed as electric current flows through the crystal) forms the coloured image. This image is then displayed on the screen.

To study the specifications and working of a DVD player.

OBJECT: To study the specifications and working of a DVD player.

THEORY 

This section of the manual will introduce you about how to operate a DVD player trainer. Different control provided on a typical DVD player trainer is also discussed. Various control provided on a remote control provided with the DVD player trainer also explained in this experiment. Inter connection audio (L) to Red sockets audio to while socket & video to yellow socket by 2mm patch cards.

PROCEDURE

  1. Connecting DVD player trainer to a television receiver
  2. Before connecting DVD player trainer to television receiver make surethat the power supply to the DVD player trainer and The Television receiver is switched off.
  3. To connect a typical DVD player trainer to the television Receiver audio / video output or RF output or provided to the DVD player trainer is used.
  4. Connective DVD player trainer and TV Receiver using A/V connection.

To design and test switch mode power supply using ICs 78XX .

OBJECT: To design and test switch mode power supply using ICs.

Apparatus required: Transformer, diodes, capacitor, resistor, 7805 IC.

Theory:

A switch mode power supply is a circuit that supplies a constant voltage regard of charges in load current. Although voltage regulator can be designed using op-amps, it is quicker and easier to use IC switch mode power supply. Furthermore, IC switch mode power supply are versatile & relativity inexpensive.

Switch mode power supply are commonly used for on – card power supply & laboratory- type power supplies. Almost all power supplies use  some type of switch mode power supply IC because switch mode power supply are simple to use, reliable, low in cost and above,all available in a variety of voltage & current rating.Positive switch mode power supply series with screw voltage options:-

The 7800/78Xxseries consist of terminal positive switch mode power supply with seven voltage option these ICs are designed as fixed switch mode power supply.A switch mode circuit is an indispensable, part of the power supply section of any electronics system. The contemporary regulator circuits are almost exclusively based on one or more than one IC’s known as IC switch mode power supply. IC switch mode power supply are available commercially in a variety of voltage, current and regulationSpecific to meet designers need. The IC switch mode being covered include the adjustable output precision switch mode type 723,the three terminal fixed output voltage positive and negative switch mode and the three terminal adjustable output voltage and negative switch mode.

To fabricate PCB and testing of electronics circuit on PCB.

OBJECT  To fabricate  PCB and testing of electronics circuit on PCB.

Apparatus required :-Base material cutting machine, Soldering machine,driller,UV light source.

Theory:  PCB Manufacturing steps

Following are the steps involved in fabrication of  PCB.

•  Base material cutting

•  Drilling

•  Through hole plating

•  Layer film generation

•  Solder resist film generation

•  Legend printing film (optional)

To prepare design layout of PCBs using software tools.

Object: To prepare design layout of PCBs using software tools.

Apparatus: Designing software like Tina or Express PCB or CAD system.

Theory: Printed circuit boards are electronic circuits boards created for mounting electronic components on a nonconductive board, and for creating conductive connections between them. The creation of circuit patterns is accomplished using both additive and subtractive methods. The conductive circuit is generally copper, although aluminum, nickel, chrome, and other metals are sometimes used. There are three basic varieties of printed circuit boards: single‐sided, double‐sided, and multilayered.

To study specifications and working of Public Address System.

Object: To study specifications and working of Public Address System.

Apparatus: Microphones, loud speakers and 100W amplifier kit, connecting wires, multimeter.

Theory: A public address system amplifies low level sound to a higher level so that it can be heard by large number of people gathered and at a considerable distance. A basic public address system has input source is a microphone, which pickups low level sound like a human speech. Examples of some other input sources are a cassette player for playback of recorded music, or compact disc player.

To study the specifications and working of a Transistor radio (AM & FM) kit and perform measurement on it.

Object: To study the specifications and working of a Transistor radio (AM & FM) kit and perform measurement on it. 

Apparatus: AM/FM Radio receiver, millimeter, connecting probes.

Theory: The kit circuit consists of IC Version 2-Band AM/FM Radio Receiver and Tape recorder In AM receiver again there are two bands i.e. medium wave and shortwave. The shortwave frequency range 535 KHz - 1605 KHz. The FM receiver has frequency band width of 88MHz to 108 MHz. The tape recorder, tape transport mechanism and panel controls of tape recorder.

To measure earth resistance using fall of potential method.

OBJECTIVE:-To measure earth resistance using fall of potential method.

APPARATUS  REQUIRED:-Earth electrode, tester, two earth stake (inner stake and outer stake)

THEORY:-The 3 point method fall of potential ground resistance test requires complete isolation from the power utility. Not just power isolation, but also removal of any neutral or other such ground connections extending outside the grounding system. This test is the most suitable test for large grounding systems and is also suitable for small electrodes.

Calibrate a single-phase energy meter by phantom loading at different power factor by Phase shifting transformer

Induction type of energy meters are universally used for measurement of energy in domestic and industrial a.c. circuits. Induction type of meters possesses lower friction and higher torque/weight ratio. Also they are inexpensive and accurate, and retain their accuracy over a wide range of loads and temperature conditions. There are four main parts of the operating mechanism:

  1. Driving system
  2. Moving system
  3. Braking system and
  4. Registering system.

Measure the power in 3-phase star connected load by two-wattmeter method at Different values of load power factor.

Power in a 3-phase three wire system, with balanced or unbalanced load can be measured by using two watt-meters . The load may be star or delta connected. The current coils of the two watt-meters are connected in any of the two lines and the pressure coils are connected between these lines and the third line, as shown in Fig.Let eRN, eYN and eBN be the voltages across the three phases of the load and iR, iY and iB the currents flowing in the three lines. Total instantaneous power in the load = eRN* iR + eYN* iY + eBN* iB. Instantaneous current through the current coil of wattmeter W1 = iR

To Calibrate a wattmeter using Crompton’s potentiometer.

For a calibration of wattmeter, a circuit similar to fig. may be used. However, result is considerable consumption of power especially when the wattmeter has a large power rating. The current coil of wattmeter is supplied from a low voltage supply and a series rheostat is inserted to adjust the value of the current. The Potential circuit is supplied from the power supply. A voltage ratio box is used to step down the voltage fro the potentiometer to read. This type of arrangement is known as “Phantom loading”. The Voltage V, Current I are measured in turn with the PM employing a double pole throw (DPDT) Switch. The true power is then VI and wattmeter reading may be compared with this value.

TO CALIBRATE AN AMMETER USING D.C SLIDE WIRE POTENTIOMETER.

The Principle of operation of all potentiometer is based on the circuit shown in figure. It Shows the basic slide wire potentiometer with Switch S at appropriate position and galvanometer Key K opens the battery Supplies. The working current through the Rheostat R and Slide wire may be varied by changing the Rheostat setting. The method of measuring unknown voltage depends upon. For finding the position for sliding contact such that galvanometer has shown zero deflection. Indicate the null deflection mean that the unknown voltage E is equal to the voltage drop E1 across position of D.C. slide wire. Thus determination of unknown voltage now becomes a matter of evaluating the voltage drop E1 along position on slide wire. The slide wire has uniform cross section and hence uniform resistance along its entire length. Since the resistance of slide wire known accurately. The voltage drop along the slide wire can be controlled by adjusting the value of current the process of adjusting the value of current so as to match the voltage drop across a position of slide wire against a standard reference source is known as standardization.

To measure the unknown capacitance by De-sauty bridge.

OBJECT: To measure the unknown capacitance by De-sauty bridge.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Two Decade Capacitors of  0.1µF total 1µF , An impedance Head Phone , Detecting cables & Bridge Oscillator OMEGA TYPE BO-316.

THEORY:

Looking at the bridge circuit as drawn on the panel of this ECB we see that two arms of  bridge are made up of resistances where as the other arms contain capacitors. Now as we apply an alternating signal (A.C.) from an Oscillator to the two points formed by junction of two resistors and by junction of two capacitors. The capacitors offer some opposition to the applied alternating signal. From A.C theory we know that this opposition is called the capacitive reactance denoted by Xc .the capacitive reactance is given by –

X= 1/(2πfc)

To measure the inductance of a given coil by Anderson Bridge method.

OBJECT: To measure the inductance of a given coil by Anderson Bridge method.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: 

Anderson Bridge circuit, Potentiometer, inductors, capacitors, power supply, connecting wires.

THEORY:

Anderson’s Bridge enables the measurement of inductance in terms of a capacitors and resistance. In experimental arrangement P,Q and R are non inductive resistance arms of the bridge. A non inductive resistance S in series with the given coil of unknown inductance ‘L’ is put in the fourth arm of the bridge between F&D.A variable resistance r and a variable condenser c are put in the parallel to the resistance P .An audio amplifier with speaker is put in between the point ‘E’ and ‘D’ and an audio frequency oscillator with a value control is put between the terminal of ‘A’ and ‘C’. The condition of balance in this case is that the potential at ‘D’ and ‘E’ are same. Under this condition no current flows through path DE and the current in various branches. At balance condition, Using Kirchhoff’s laws we have (in loop ABCD)

To calibrate the given Energy Meter by phantom loading.

OBJECT: To calibrate the given Energy Meter by phantom loading.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Energy Meter, Auto Transformer, U.P.F. Wattmeter, Voltmeter, Ammeter, Resistive Load, Stop Watch, Connecting Wires.

THEORY:

Induction type of energy meters are universally used for measurement of energy in domestic and industrial a.c. circuits. Induction type of meters possesses lower friction and higher torque/weight ratio. Also they are inexpensive and accurate, and retain their accuracy over a wide range of loads and temperature conditions. There are four main parts of the operating mechanism:

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